the US began implementing an Indian removal policy in the early 19th century
At this time 5 major Indian tribes lived in the Southeast
The Seminoles were comprised of creeks, runaway slaves, and native Floridians
Tribes are politically distinct but share a cultural identity called "Mississippian" (think "western society")
Agrarian for over 3000 years
Individuals subordinate themselves to shared ideals (harmony, community)
Very low social stratification
Consensus-based decision making
Heredity political authority rare
Western thinkers did not understand this culture, and considered it uncivilized
Western concepts of landownership were fundamentally incompatible with nomadic Mississippian culture
Western powers do not consider nomads to be "landowners"
A "landowner" must and develop and inhabit his land.
Because nomadic Indians did not have a legitimate ownership claim to their land, European settlers were able to claim right of discovery.
After american Independence, the US Federal government began to aggressively source Indian land
allowed Indians to accrue debts, which would be settle with land sales
"westernized" or "civilized" Indians
Indians were receptive to some elements of Western civilization but were not ready to fully assimilate.
Difficulty civilizing Indians pushed the US Fed to relocate Indians instead
This was though to be beneficial for all parties
White plantation owners get their land NOW
Indians can civilize at their own pace
The problem can be tackled at a more measured pace
Where should we send the Indians?
The relocation idea aligned nicely with the Louisiana purchase
The US Fed didn't know what to do with the territory
Indians were to be sent west of the Mississippi to the Louisiana Territory
Issues with the plan
The "Civilized" Indians were more willing to leave than the "uncivilized" Indians
Removal took a long time
As pressure from cotton investors grew, the US Fed decided to forcibly relocate Indians to the west
Andrew Jackson is elected president, very experienced in handling Indians.
Threatened Indians to sign treaties, then enforced them
Used the military to force Indians out
Cherokees used the court system, supreme court ordered the government to stop
Government ignored the supreme court
Thousands of Indians died, but they were successfully relocated to the west
THE DEMOCRATIC REVIEW was a political journal associated with the Democratic party. It espoused Jacksonian policies, and was a significant proponent of Manifest Destiny.
JACKSONIANISM is an expansionist political ideology (specifically w.r.t. westward expansion)
AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM is the concept that the American way of life (Protestant Christianity, Democracy) is the most superlative way of living
As such, it is both the Divine duty and MANIFEST DESTINY of Americans to spread its values and institutions to the world (especially "uncivilized" peoples)
JOHN O'SULLIVAN is a writer for the Democratic Review. He coined the term "manifest destiny"
Keep in mind that the other subheadings are from the perspective of the Democratic Review (and may not necessarily reflect the broader political specturm. The Democratic review is extremely biased by design.)
There isn't actually very much content in this reading, I do not think it will be on the exam. It's a lot of words to describe a few very simple concepts.
America is "The highest stage of history, God's plan incarnate."
As such, the job of the US Fed is primarily to prevent America from becoming less ho
Expansion is a way to preserve freedom and afford opportunities for a properly independent American existence
Unlike the European model of expansion via "Slaughter and Conquest," the superior American model will expand via "Peace and Good Faith"
American system did not offer any “pretext of excuse for such wholesale oppression, robbery, and murder.
America has a divine right to possess the entire continent. However, it has to be done ethically.
Therefore, we need to make up reasonable justifications for taking chunks of land!
Geographical excuse: "If you look at a map, XYZ natural border (rivers, mountains, etc) obviously marks off where our territory should extend to!"
Racial Excuse: "This land has been settled by whites, so it should belong to whites!"
Religious Excuse: "God gave us this land!"
Economic Excuse: "We could turn a huge profit!"
this one is kinda based
By the 1850s, it was in fact possible to think of the Caribbean islands as “naturally” American on account of their being the natural, effluvial result of the Mississippi.
Annexed despite protests of Mexicans
Significantly harmed the Hispanic population living there
Genocide of Indians
America Considered conquering Mexico
Decided against it because it might take a long time
Also it was too dangerous to allow racial and cultural mixing between Mexicans and Whites
The propagandized narrative goes as so: After the battle of Antietam, Lincoln delivered the Emancipation Proclamation. GB was so moved by this speech that they decided not to go help the Confederate states secede"
This narrative is patently false
GB was not impressed by the emancipation proclimation
The real reason they did not intervene was because they didn't want to fight a war against America.
They also didn't really recognize the confederacy as a nation
There is a lot here and this will probably be the one on the exam. I decided to include more detail because of this.
In 1862, the British government planned to orchestrate a European intervention in the American Civil War to secure Southern independence.
The exact reason that this intervention did not take place is unknown
If this intervention were to have gone through, the course of the war would have been changed. The Confederacy would have gained its independence
The Beginning of the war...
George Cornewall Lewis (sec of War)
opposed intervention on the grounds that he did not want to go to war with the USA
England maintains an official stance: Neutrality
Wants to trade with both the North and South
Prime Minister + Foreign Secretary
does not understand why the USA cares so much, considers unity a lost cause
GB feared that the USA wanted to incite a large scale race war
This would force Confederate soldiers to have to go home and protect their families from being killed by former slaves
This wasn't exactly true
Lincoln originally didn't want the war to be about slavery because it would alienate states along the mason-dixon line
Also, white soldiers from the north weren't super on board with going to war for the benefit of black slaves
GB wants to intervene as a mediator of peace
GB is afraid to pull the trigger on this, because they do not consider the Confederacy's secession to be legal
In the end GB decides that they'll ask the US's friend Russia to invite the US and Confederacy to a roundtable discussion with all 4 nations to try and hash things out
They think that the US will be more receptive since they have good relations with russia
The Battle of Antietam happened
overwhelming loss for the Confederacy
Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclimation
The delivery of the Emancipation Proclamation rattled GB
GB feared that the E.P. would incite slave revolts and spiral out of control into a vicious race/class war
GB feared that the war would become incredibly violent and bloody and become a completely pointless bloodbath
Having lived through the French Revolution, GB was very disinterested in such an eventuality and made ready to intervene on behalf of the Confederacy
GB no longer believes in mediation
They think that Lincoln will try and press his victory, and there's no way that they'll be willing to negotiate
GB still hesitant to send military aid
They do not want to send any military aid to the Confed. unless they are directly attacked
GB goes back to considering mediation
Quickly decides that the war is too far gone and any attempts to meddle will lead to war, so they should provide military aid instead
France Proposes that 6 European Nations get together and all collectively call for an armistice and negotiatons, and threaten that they will all go to war against the Union if they say no
Russia didn't want to do this
Without russia, nobody else wanted to do this either
Finally, after all that arguing British Public opinion turned in favour of the USA
The Public wasn't a fan of slavery and though that the USA was doing the right thing
With no public support, nothing could be done
Thus, there was no intervention in the end
This reading was mostly a very long timeline with a bunch of quotes. I'd memorize the large outlines and just kind of become vaguely familiar with the details. :)
The US made large territorial gains in the 1700s and 1800s
the US made incredible economic advancement during this time as well
Within the 100 year period between 1800 and 1900 the US economy grew by 40 times
By 1919, the US was the largest world economy, more the double that of GB
The US was ahead by every economic metric usually by very significant margins
America had a lot of lumber, raw materials, and fertile land
This land was effectively free since we killed or otherwise displaced all of the natives
Export of nonindustrial goods makes up a large part of the US economy
The era of manifest destiny and general westward expansion took place during a century-long period of peace in Europe
This let the Americans focus on killing all of the natives and building out infrastructure to capture the available natural resources instead of fighting wars.
This also allowed the Americans easy access to free trade with Europe, we saw relatively few issues (blockades, wars, etc.)
The philosophy of "free trade" gained traction (over older philosophies such as mercantilism)
Free trade came to dominate the global market during this period of American expansion
Free trade is good for making money and avoiding wars (basically mercantilism zero-sum free trade is positve-sum)
Westward expansion coincided nicely with the Industrial Revolution
Instant long range communication, high speed freight transport, industrial manufacturing etc. all contribute to a strong economy.
large investment in critical infrastructure (railroads, canals, education, etc.)
low taxes outside of primary investments
pro-business legislation (allows businesses to grow quickly)
strong patent law (encourages competition)
pro-immigration policy (large workforce)
strong national unity + political stability
except for that whole civil war bit but it was dealt with quickly
People were less receptive to common anti-competitive establishments (e.g. guilds and rigid social classes)
People were less receptive to common attitudes that stifled economic growth (e.g. agrarian life, disinterest in geographic mobility)
America took large cash infusions from European countries and made large returns on these investments.
By the 1900s they were no longer reliant on outside investment, and american mega-corporations had overseas arms that sent money back to the domestic markets.
The strongest portion of the US market was domestic (making up ~90% of the economy)
Exports trailed behind and were largely raw materials (making up about ~10% of the economy)
Largely agricultural exports (e.g. cotton)
Other raw materials
Decreased reliance on Agriculture
Increased reliance on Manufactured goods and specialized equipment
Export/Domestic ratio remained relatively unchange
Just copypaste everything I said about american exceptionalism before. God is awesome he made us really good at manufacturing stuff wow we are so cool. Also racism and sexism are justified because we are just so cool and awesome and chosen by god.
Now that we are so cool and have all this fancy tech and logistics and infrastructure and machine guns we should go do some raping and pillaging. There are 4 primary reasons to do this
We deserve to do it because we are better than the natives
It would be really easy for us to do since we are technologically superior
It is necessary to have a whole bunch of satellite colonies in case we go to war. Having ports with warships in the middle of the ocean lets us respond to attacks better.
We would make a lot of money (we like money)